Balancing Your Doshas


Warm Vata

If excessive stress in your life leads to your Vata force becoming imbalanced, your activity will start to feel out of control. Your mind may race, contributing to anxiety and insomnia. You may start skipping meals, resulting in unintended weight loss, and your digestion may become irregular. If you notice these early symptoms of a Vata imbalance, slow down, take time to meditate, don’t skip meals, and get to bed earlier. A regular lifestyle routine helps ground Vata so you are not carried away into the ethers.

  • Vata is cold, light, irregular, dry, and always changing. To balance Vata, make choices that bring warmth, stability, and consistency to your life.Try to get to bed before 10pm, awaken by 6am, and eat your meals at regular times.
  • Avoid becoming chilled. Wear adequate clothing appropriate for the season and keep your head covered when the weather is cold.
  • Perform a daily self-abhy massage using warmer, heavier oils like sesame and almond. Learn how to perform a self-abhyangha here.
  • They experience periods of high energy, but they also tire easily. Light exercise that enhance balance and flexibility is best for a Vata body type. Take care not to push yourself too far and exceed the limits of your energy. Beneficial activities for Vatas include: yoga, Qi Gong, Tai Chi, walking and short hikes, light bicycling, light tennis, golf, dance, and aerobics.
  • Fresh ginger root is beneficial and can be used frequently. During the cool weather, sip ginger tea throughout the day.
  • Be certain that your bowels move regularly on a daily basis.
  • Favor soothing, calming music.
  • Touch and be touched regularly by the people you love. Get regular massages treatments. Learn about ayurvedic massage here.
  • Favor warm colors in your clothing and environment such as earth colors, pastels, browns, and warm yellows.
  • Favor aromas that are sweet, heavy, and warm. Examples include basil, bay, cinnamon, citrus, cloves, frankincense, lavender, pine, sage, and vanilla.

Vata-Balancing Nutritional Guidelines

According to Ayurveda, it is important to eat foods that have a balancing effect upon the dominant dosha or that will pacify (stabilize) a dosha that has become excessive or aggravated. Since Vata is drying, cooling and light, favor foods that are oily, warming, or heavy. The best tastes to pacify Vata are sweet, salty and sour. Minimize foods that are pungent, bitter, or astringent.


  • To balance the lightness of Vata, eat larger quantities, but don’t overeat.
  • All sweeteners pacify Vata and may be taken in moderation.
  • Fats and oils are beneficial in the digestive system and help reduce Vata. Use up to 3 teaspoons daily of ghee or extra virgin olive oil. Learn how to make ghee here.
  • All low-fat dairy products are recommended. Milk is easier to digest when warm or heated.
  • Rice and wheat are the best grains for balancing Vata. Reduce the amount of barley, corn, millet, buckwheat, and rye.
  • Favor sweet, heavy fruits such as: bananas, avocados, mangoes, apricots, plums, berries, coconut, figs, grapefruit, orange, lemon, melons, papaya, peaches, pineapples, rhubarb, kiwi, dates, nectarines and dried fruits.
  • Eat fewer dry or light fruits such as apples, cranberries, pears, and pomegranates. To ease digestion, fruits are best eaten lightly cooked or sautéed or eaten alone.
  • Cooked vegetables are best. Raw vegetables should be minimized. Favor Asparagus, beets, and carrots. Other vegetables may be taken in moderation if cooked in ghee or extra virgin olive oil, including peas, broccoli, cauliflower, zucchini, and sweet potatoes.
  • Sprouts and cabbage tend to produce gas and should be minimized.
  • Dairy products pacify Vata. For optimal digestion, boil milk before drinking it and consume it while warm.
  • Spices that pacify Vata include cardamom, cumin, ginger, cinnamon, salt, cloves, mustard seed, basil, asafetida, cilantro, fennel, oregano, sage, tarragon, thyme, and black pepper.
  • All varieties of nuts are recommended.
  • Beans can aggravate Vata, so minimize your consumption of them, with the exception of tofu and mung bean dahl.
  • For non-vegetarians, use fresh, organic chicken, turkey, seafood, and eggs.

Note: Favoring heavy foods such as sweets, oils, and richer foods may contribute to weight gain. Focus on natural grains, and heavy, moist fruits and vegetables. Keep your sweets to a minimum and use low-fat milk products. Cook your food for easy digestion.

Cool Your Pitta!

Use this diet to help clear skin inflammations, itching, joint pain, hot flushes, acidity, ulcers, anger, irritation, infection & fever:

General Treatments

Please just eat what is appropriate for you. If you are intolerant of any food or simply do not like it then please avoid it.
Include Aloe Vera juice and rosewater daily
Avoid alcohol, coffee, tea, chocolate, cheese, yogurt, and animal products. Low quality oils are a major cause of inflammation.
Avoid sour, salty, and pungent foods as these aggravate inflammation.
Favor foods that are cool, refreshing and liquid. Fresh organic fruits and vegetables.
Favor foods that are sweet, bitter, or astringent as these reduce heat.
Reduce foods that are spicy, salty or sour as these increase heat.

Dairy: Milk, butter, and ghee are good for pacifying heat. Avoid yogurt, cheese, sour cream, and cultured buttermilk; these sour tastes aggravate inflammation.

Sweeteners: All sweeteners are good except for honey and molasses.

Oils: Flax, hemp, evening primrose, olive, sunflower, and coconut oils are best. Reduce sesame, almond, and corn oil, all of which increase heat.

Grains: Wheat, basmati rice, barley and oats are anti-inflammatory. Reduce corn, rye, millet, and brown rice as they are a little heating.

Fruits: Favor sweet fruits such as grapes, limes, cherries, melons, avocado, coconut, pomegranates, mangoes, apples, berries, sweet and fully ripened oranges, pineapples, and plums. Reduce sour fruits such as grapefruits, lemons, olives, papayas and sour, not-yet-ripened oranges, pineapples, and plums as they can increase heat and acidity.

Vegetables: Favor asparagus, cucumber, cooked beetroots, sweet potatoes, green leafy vegetables, pumpkins, summer squash, broccoli, cauliflower, celery, okra, lettuce, sprouted beans, peas, green beans. Avoid the nightshade family; hot peppers, bell peppers, tomatoes, aubergines, potato (some is ok). Also avoid Allium family; especially raw onions, garlic, radishes. Also avoid and raw beetroots, raw spinach and mustard greens as these all increase heat and acidity.

Beans: Avoid all beans except for tofu and mung lentils. Especially avoid peanuts as these can create inflammation.

Spices: Cinnamon, coriander, dill, aniseed, cardamom, fennel, turmeric, fresh ginger and small amounts of black pepper are good, but the following spices strongly increase heat and should be taken in moderation: Asafoetida, dry ginger, cumin, fenugreek, clove, celery seed, salt, and mustard seed. Chilli peppers and cayenne should be avoided.

Meat and Fish: Chicken, pheasant, and turkey are preferable; but beef, seafood, and egg yolk increase inflammation.

Superfoods: Chlorella, Spirulina, Wheat grass, Barley grass, Kalamath lake algae, seaweeds all help to cool the system and clear inflammation.

Source: Pukka

Keep Kapha in Balance

During winter season, we should be very careful about our diet and behavior.  It is good to avoid kapha causing foods such as curd and other fermented foods.  However, despite all precautions, it is still the tendency of kapha to increase during winter.  Increased kapha may cause problems later in the next ritu, i.e. vasanta ritu (spring or early summer).  During vasanta ritu , this Kapha gets liquified due to heat.  This may lead to many kapha diseases.

However, Ayurveda has an answer to this problem.  To get rid of this liquified and increased kapha, Vamana treatment is advised during vasant ritu.  Vamana means induced vomiting.  Vamana is one of the panchakarma treatments.  Vamana is especially useful to get rid of bad kapha dosha and also pitta.

This procedure needs lot of preparation in order to loosen and mobilize the kapha and other doshas.  These pre-treatments include snehana (use of oil internally and externally) and swedan (fomentation to induce sweating).  Both these are preformed 7 to 9 days before actual main procedure of vamana.   When the patient is ready for vomiting, he/she is given kapha loosening foods on the previous day. Vamana is performed early in the morning.  The patient is made to drink lots of fluid such as milk, sugarcane juice, or certain herbal decoctions.  Then, Vamana medicine is given, which usually is a herb called Madanaphala.  Within 30 to 45 minutes, the patient starts vomiting.  When all bad kapha and pitta are gone, the vomiting automatically stops.

If done properly, this therapy has wonderful results.   Many pulmonary and stomach disorders such as asthma and hyperacidity can be cured
with the help of vamana therapy.  Vaman is effective in many many other diseases including skin diseases and even some heart ailments.

Dr. Chandrashekhar Thite
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3 Burps to Cherish

By Hilary Kimblin Licht Dec. 24, 2014 ~ Everyday Ayurveda

Our bodies are constantly communicating with us and the stomach is no exception. Some of its most important messages surface in a way we often try to stifle and ignore, namely as burps. But in this article I’d like you to leave any embarrassment here and open your heart and mind. I’d like to introduce you to three burps you will soon recognize within yourself. Three burps you can truly come to cherish.

1. The Clean Burp

You are hungry. Your stomach may be grumbling. Its digestive enzymes are ready to break down food. You experience a burp and taste – nothing. It’s a Clean Burp and this is a good sign. Go ahead and eat a meal.

2. The Stop Eating Burp

While you are eating quite happily and not talking much, as Ayurveda suggests, taking only sips of room temperature water with your meal, oops, a small hiccup or burp happens. This is your signal to put your fork down and wrap up the rest of your food. Your stomach has had enough.

If you do so, no matter what you have eaten (a dense burrito or a rich risotto) you will feel light and clean.

If you continue to eat past this Stop Eating Burp, however – even just that one little teensy weensy bit more that was already on your fork already – it will be as if this polite plea from the tummy never happened. Your mind will take over and keep putting more fuel into the system that has already signaled, “enough.” And when your mind finally stops, your entire system will feel slow, sluggish, heavy and slightly “off” as the stomach desperately tries to do more than its fair share of work. Ugh.

3. The Not Yet Burp

Let’s say you indulged in that eating bonanza and it ended at 1pm. It is now close to suppertime at 5:30pm. Your friend is hungry and would like to get something to eat with you. You’re not quite there yet but figure you will be when you both sit down, and so you agree to meet him at 6pm at a restaurant.

Then you get the Not Yet Burp – and you taste the foods you ate at lunch. Your stomach is informing you that it is still working hard to digest its current contents and does not need anymore to contend with at this moment, thank you very much!

What should you do? Not eat, that’s for sure! Wait until you experience The Clean Burp before giving your stomach more to do.

Now many of you are reading this and thinking, “I don’t burp at meals. In fact I hardly ever burp! Maybe when I drink beer, but otherwise I just don’t burp.” Which is exactly how I reacted when my teacher, Dr. Vasant Lad, brought this to my attention.
“Observe,” was all he said in response.

And so I did, and sure enough I started to notice it each and every day. It became the easiest way to control my portions and I have never had to think in terms of calories since!

This method is tricky to detect, however, if you are drinking carbonated beverages with your meals, (so don’t) and it is also not for grazers. As Ayurveda advises, three meals a day with the largest one being at lunch-time, and an additional two light snacks (if necessary) in between is best. If you are eating small amounts all day long it not only diminishes agni, digestive fire, but makes it difficult for the stomach to signal with burps.

If you have trouble observing this natural phenomenon in yourself simply dine with others and witness the, “Oh excuse me’s,” friends and family members will utter as they cover their mouths and hiccup or belch into napkins. It’s often followed quickly by, “Could you please pass me that dish there?”

When I started dating the man I would later marry I was astounded by the quantity of food he ordered when we ate out together. I soon learned he couldn’t live without Prilosec and TUMS. When I started becoming what he calls The Burp Police and pointing out the signals his stomach was offering at each meal his indigestion, acid reflux, Prisolec, TUMS, and excess weight all disappeared.

I hope you are as successful with deciphering these ancient messages from within and that with time you can transition from dreading their existence to truly cherishing your burps!

Hilary Kimblin Licht is the founder and owner of Peace Tree Healing in Topanga, CA, specializing in Ayurveda, Massage, Hypnosis and Yoga.

Khichadi ~ when you want to go easy on your digestion

Here is the way I prepare khichadi:

In one pot combine 1 cup washed lentil (mung dal etc) and 1 cup washed basmati rice with plenty of water (4 cups at least). Start to bring this pot of lentils and rice to a boil. Boil some water in another pot on the side and have it just in case you need to add water as you go…

wash and chop up veggies (broccoli, kale, carrots etc). I use whatever is in season and on-hand. you can also be very specific and choose veggies that will placate your doshas.

In a saucepan get some ghee sauteing and add: onion, garlic, and chopped ginger. Once it is browning add turmeric and salt, black pepper, cumin, mustard seeds, coriander, fennel and any other favorite spices. This will create the masala – the sauce – it will become a paste.

Scrape “froth” from the rice and dal mixture as it arises. Add a dash of hing/asofetida to the pot. Now add the veggies. Stir. Add the masala.

Simmer for another 10 minutes – test with a spoon to see if all is cooked.


Note: if you see that you need more water add the hot water from the extra pot as you go. You can alter the consistency by adding the veggies later and having them more crunchy or go for a more soupy khichadi by adding more water… it’s fun to experiment ~

Ayurveda on Stomach Issues:

Here are some ideas for you :

Order Triphala and use as directed – if you make a tea from the powder, that’s preferred but it is bitter :

You might enjoy Triphala in capsule form more:

Triphala keeps the bowels clean.

Add ghee to your cooking:

Ghee reduces acidity in the stomach. You can saute with it instead of using oil.

Keep regular mealtimes. Breakfast 7am, Lunch when sun is at its peak ~ 12, Dinner ~ 6:30pm when you eat a late lunch or dinner it results in sluggish digestion and problems…

Become aware of which foods can not be combined with others:

Do not drink a lot of liquids while eating. Drink more between meals. Avoid ice-cold drinks and ice-cream.

Easy to digest recipes:
More recipe ideas:
See my Khichadi recipe above ~ or several more recipes for Khichadi here:

Start to become aware of when your stomach has signaled, “enough.” This will come in the form of a burp or hiccup while you are eating. When you notice this – STOP eating, pack up the food and eat it later when you feel hungry. When you are not eating and you have a “clear” burp – meaning when there is no odor or taste to the burp – your stomach is ready for food – provided you are hungry. When there is an odor or taste associated with the burp it signals that the stomach is still digesting what it already contains. DO NOT overtax your digestive system by eating more when this is the case.

More relief needed = enemas. I can explain more to you about this but here is some info to begin:

If you are curious about your “dosha” here is a quick test to help you determine it – or call me and we can meet for a consultation and this will all make much more sense:

in joy,




The Four Varieties of Agni

According to Ayurveda, good health, longevity, and balanced agni all go hand in hand. Conversely, most imbalances and diseases can ultimately be traced back to impaired agni. It’s that simple. Balanced agni is the key to living a long, healthy, and fulfilling life whereas impaired agni is a surefire way to court imbalance, disease, and discontent. But how do we know if our agni is balanced? What are the signs and symptoms of discord in the central digestive fire? And how can we support a return to balance when things go awry? To help us get our bearings, Ayurveda identifies four basic varieties of agni. In the paragraphs that follow, you will find a detailed exploration of each of them, and, where appropriate, links with suggestions on how best to support a return to balance. It is our hope, that in understanding the different faces of both healthy and impaired agni, you will be better able to care for your own.


Sama Agni: Balanced Agni

Those few among us who are blessed with balanced agni enjoy a wide range of benefits as a result. Balanced agni results in happiness, perfect health, and a calm, clear, and loving state of mind.1 Individuals with sama agni can generally digest a reasonable quantity of any food in any season without issue, and they tolerate changes in the weather and the seasons quite gracefully.1 These individuals enjoy balanced digestion, absorption, and elimination, a surplus of ojas, tejas, and prana, strong immunity, and an abiding sense of contentment and satisfaction, even bliss, in their lives.1

Unfortunately, in the modern era, with our highly processed food supply, and our fast-paced, high-stress culture, sama agni is rare. The vast majority of us will identify with one or more of the other three varieties of agni: those that are impaired in some way. But, do not perceive this as a life-long sentence to suffering. Rather, it is an invitation to heal. Once we know what forces have disturbed agni, we can much more effectively support its recovery. Even a rather recent or seemingly short-lived imbalance in agni should be tended to. In fact, the earlier an imbalance is detected and addressed, the easier it will be to correct.


Agni and the Three Doshas

In the beginning, disturbed agni is usually a result of an accumulation of vata, pitta, or kapha in the digestive tract. This excess takes a toll on agni and hinders its proper functioning. Over time, impaired agni can exacerbate doshic imbalances and can also lead to the accumulation of ama. These developments further compromise agni, and the cycle tends to perpetuate itself. So, helping agni to return to balance has both an immediate and a long-term impact on our health. It improves how we feel now, and it helps to prevent the accumulation of vata, pitta, kapha, and ama in the future.

Still, how to go about restoring the strength of agni depends on what’s affecting it in the first place. Different types of imbalances affect agni differently, and require different treatments. That’s where the 3 varieties of impaired agni come in handy. The following will give you a foundational understanding of how each dosha and its qualities affect the hot, sharp, dry, light, and subtle nature of fire. But keep in mind that it is entirely possible to have a combination of them affecting agni such that an imbalance might involve two, or even all three of the doshas. If you find that you have strong indicators of two or more types of agni affecting your system, we would highly recommend that you see an Ayurvedic practitioner in order to receive more personalized recommendations, as correcting more than one type of imbalance in agni can be a bit tricky. Until then, you can follow the general recommendations in our resource on Understanding Agni.


Vishama Agni: Irregular Metabolism (too erratic)

Vishama agni is associated with excess vata. Vata’s light, dry, subtle and clear qualities are actually quite supportive of agni, whereas its cold and mobile qualities often interfere with agni. The cold quality dampens agni’s heat while the mobile, airy quality acts much like a gusty wind – either intensifying the fire, slowing it briefly, or, if the fire is too weak to begin with, blowing it out completely. Vishama agni is therefore irregular and erratic in nature, and it can change on a dime.


Signs & Symptoms

Vishama agni causes an irregular appetite, variable digestion, indigestion, abdominal distension, gas, gurgling intestines, constipation (or alternating constipation and diarrhea), and colicky pain.1, 2 Other symptoms of vishama agni include dry mouth, receding gums, dry skin, cracking joints, sciatica, low back ache, hemorrhoids, muscle spasms, and insomnia.1 The tongue can develop indentations along the margins, and can be especially dry, or even hairy.2 Vishama agni can also cause a feeling of heaviness after eating, and cravings for hot, spicy, or fried foods.1 Emotionally, it tends to cause anxiety, fear, and insecurity.1 When ama forms as a result of vishama agni, there is often a brownish-black coating on the back (posterior) portion tongue.2 If a number of these symptoms sound familiar, you’ll want to review our resource on balancing vishama agni. If your symptoms seem largely unrepresented here, or if only some of your symptoms are described here, continue reading.


Tikshna Agni: Hypermetabolism (too hot and too sharp)

Tikshna agni is associated with excess pitta. Pitta’s light, hot, sharp, spreading, and subtle qualities normally support agni but in excess, they can inflame it – triggering the overactive, hypermetabolism that characterizes tikshna agni.1 When this is the case, nutrition is often incinerated and passed through the digestive tract very quickly, leaving the tissues undernourished. (Note: you may have noticed that pitta’s liquid and oily qualities are not mentioned here. An excess in these qualities tend to dampen agni – much like pouring hot water on a fire – and can cause manda agni, instead.1 In this case, refer to the manda agni section below).


Signs & Symptoms

Tikshna agni causes excess intensity in the digestive fire. Individuals with tikshna agni often have a somewhat insatiable appetite, tend to desire large quantities of food on a frequent basis, and have great difficulty skipping meals.1 They can also experience fiery symptoms like hyperacidity, acid indigestion, gastritis, heartburn, hot flashes, acidic saliva, and fever.1, 2 The lips, throat, and palate may feel excessively dry after eating and the tongue can develop red margins and tenderness.1, 2 Other symptoms of tikshna agni include hypoglycemia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, loose stools, pain in the liver, ulcerative colitis, and other inflammatory conditions.1, 2 Tikshna agni can also cause hives, rash, acne, and many other skin conditions (consider reading our Soothing Skin Guide).2 Emotionally, tikshna agni tends to trigger anger, hate, envy, irritability, aggressiveness, a strong desire to be in control, and harsh judgment of everyone and everything.1, 2 Tikshna agni is often accompanied by an intense craving for sweets.1 When ama forms as a result of tikshna agni, it tends to cause a yellow or greenish coating on the central part of the tongue.2 If a number of these symptoms sound familiar, you’ll want to review our resource on balancing tikshna agni. If your symptoms are either unrepresented, or only partially represented here, please continue reading.


Manda Agni: Hypometabolism (too slow and too dull)

Manda agni is associated with excess kapha. Kapha dosha is predominated by the earth and water elements and is heavy, slow, cool, oily, smooth, dense, soft, stable, gross, and cloudy. As such, kapha serves as an important buffer against the heat and intensity of agni in the body. However, in excess, kapha can’t help but suppress the digestive fire, leaving it underactive, dull, and sluggish. And, as we saw earlier, manda agni can also be the result of pitta’s oily and liquid qualities accumulating. Because of the gross, physical nature of these influences, manda agni usually takes longer to develop and can require more time to correct as well.1


Signs & Symptoms

Manda agni dulls the appetite, slows the metabolism and causes the experience of heaviness in the stomach, the body, and the mind – especially after eating, but sometimes even without food.1 Manda agni often leads to frequent colds, congestion, coughs, as well as allergies, edema, and lymph congestion.1 It can also cause over salivation, nausea, mucoid vomiting, hypertension, hyperglycemia, diabetes, hypothyroid, excess weight, and obesity.1 Cold, clammy skin, and generalized weakness are also signs of manda agni.1 Mentally and emotionally, it can cause lethargy, boredom, attachment, greed, and possessiveness, along with a desire for excess sleep.1, 2 Manda agni can elicit a strong craving for sharp, dry, and very hot, spicy foods.1 When ama forms as a result of manda agni, it tends to cause a white coating on the entire tongue.2 If several of these symptoms sound familiar, you’ll want to review our resource on balancing manda agni.


More Complex Imbalances

Remember, it is entirely possible to have more than one type of impaired agni acting on the system at once. There might be tikshna-vishama agni where the appetite is strong but the digestion is irregular, such that when one eats a large meal, they get gas, bloating, and discomfort.2 Another example would be vishama-manda agni where the appetite is irregular and digestion is sluggish, causing fairly persistent lethargy, bloating, and sleepiness.2 Of course, any combination of the three varieties of agni is possible. It is even possible to have vishama-tikshna-manda agni, although this is a rather serious imbalance. At this stage, the most important thing is to identify the major players in your situation and to begin to offer whatever small steps you can to support your agni in returning to balance.


The Big Picture

As we know, healthy agni is the key to optimal health. It digests our food, processes our emotions, oversees intelligence throughout the body, and lends life its particular flavor. Ultimately, there is only one agni, and it exists everywhere in the body. The four varieties of agni are simply a tool for distinguishing healthy agni from impaired agni, and – if it is somehow compromised – for identifying the influences that have disturbed it. Ayurveda is not a one-size-fits-all system of healing. The individual circumstances and the context within which those circumstances arose are every bit as important as the particular collection of symptoms. The point of these types of tools is to increase self-awareness so that we can apply the wisdom of Ayurveda and begin to heal. If the entire process feels daunting or overwhelming, an Ayurvedic practitioner can help you to sort out the particulars of your case and offer personalized support wherever you need it. If you are eager to expand your understanding of agni and related topics, you may find these additional resources helpful:

  • Understanding Agni
    As an introduction to the critically important Ayurvedic concept of agni, this resource explores agni’s role in maintaining health and vitality throughout the body, and offers practical tools for kindling the sacred fire within.
  • Ama: The Antithesis of Agni
    This piece introduces the toxic, undigested material called ama, whose qualities directly oppose those of agni. Ama in the body can either be the cause or the result of impaired agni – and in either case, threatens our health.
  • Ayurvedic Guide to Healthy Elimination
    This resource provides a comprehensive look at healthy elimination through the lens of Ayurveda; it highlights the importance of healthy bowel habits and stools, offers some general tips for supporting proper elimination, and links to more specific articles on vata type elimination, pitta type elimination, and kapha type elimination.
  • The Importance of Agni
    This article explores the specific functions of agni, as well as the signs and symptoms of healthy and impaired agni.



  1. Lad, Vasant. Textbook of Ayurveda Volume I: Fundamental Principles of Ayurveda. Albuquerque: The Ayurvedic Press, 2002. Print. 90-92.
  2. Lad, Vasant. Textbook of Ayurveda, Volume II: A Complete Guide to Clinical Assessment.  Albuquerque: The Ayurvedic Press, 2006. Print. 191-192, 341.